The Volkswagen Group comprises twelve brands from seven European countries. Each brand has its own character and operates as an independent entity on the market. The product spectrum ranges from motorcycles to small cars and luxury vehicles. The success is based on the qualification and personal commitment of 642.292 people who are employed by the Volkswagen Group. With its headquarters in Wolfsburg, it is one of the world’s leading automobile manufacturers and the largest carmaker in Europe. Group sales revenue in 2017 totaled €230.7 billion (2016: €217.267 billion). The expenditures for R&D came up to approx. €13.1 billion. The approximately 49.000 employees within R&D account represent about 7,7% of the total workforce.
The involvement in C2FUEL will deliver interesting results of the effects of using DME as fuel in a Diesel base engine. By contributing with hardware, technical support and reference data of the used test engine we expect to learn about the potentials and challenges of DME like for example reduced soot. This can be transferred to all kind of engine sizes, from automotive up to the envisaged maritime engines, which are also produced at Volkswagen Group (by MAN).
Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) is a research university specializing in engineering science & technology. Our education, research and knowledge valorization contribute to: (i) science for society: solving the major societal issues and boosting prosperity and welfare by focusing on the Strategic Areas of Energy, Health and Smart Mobility; (ii) science for industry: the development of technological innovation in cooperation with industry; (iii) science for science: progress in engineering sciences through excellence in key research cores and innovation in education. Both research groups Sustainable Process Engineering and Inorganic Material participate to C2FUEL.
The aim of the Sustainable Process Engineering group is the development and scale-up of a membrane reactor system for CO2 hydrogenation to DME. The role of the Inorganic Materials and Catalysis is the development of electrochemical conversion of CO2 to formic acid.
Fundación TECNALIA Research and Innovation is the largest private non-profit applied research centre in Spain and the fifth in Europe, employing 1,407 people (248 PhDs) and with income of 110 Million € in 2018. TECNALIA innovation and technological developments are addressed by 6 business divisions, covering economic sectors of Industry and Transport, Information and Communication Technologies, Building, Energy and Environment, Lab services and Health and Quality of Life. Furthermore, TECNALIA created TECNALIA VENTURES in 2012 an independent TTO (Technology Transfer office) designed for exploitation and transfer of research results. TECNALIA has been granted over 658 patents and promoted more than 30 spin-off companies.
The “Membrane Technology and Process Intensification Platform” (14 persons, including 6 PhD and 3 PHD students) at the Materials & Processes Dept. of the Energy and Environment Division will be involved in the C2FUEL project. During the last years the group has been involved in the development of materials and membranes (i.e. Pd-based, Carbon Molecular Sieves Membranes, Mixed Matrix Membranes) for: (i) gas separation applications (such as pre- and post- combustion carbon dioxide capture, natural; (ii) gas purification, air separation and olefin/paraffin separation); (iii) hydrogen production; (iv) water separation; (v) process intensification using membrane reactors. Within C2FUEL, the main role of TECNALIA is the development and scale up of advanced Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes.
ENGIE Lab CRIGEN is the corporate R&D center of ENGIE Group, dedicated to gas and new energies. It conducts operational R&D projects and develops pilots for the Business Units, corporate entities of ENGIE and external customers, in an effort to master tomorrow’s technologies, bring them to maturity, and prepare the Energy Transition. ENGIE Lab CRIGEN creates value through innovative low-carbon solutions for ENGIE’s customers and innovative solutions to improve operational excellence of industrial assets. Regarding hydrogen ENGIE Lab CRIGEN is involved from more than 15 years in the whole value chain, on technological R&D and expertise (production, transport, distribution and uses), process modelling and simulation, tools development implemented in pilots and demonstrators.
As C2FUEL project coordinator, ENGIE will be involved in coordination, management and communication tasks and will also achieve some technical work. ENGIE will define and establish demonstration systems requirements and perform some analysis regarding DK6 power plant specifications, and Dunkirk area electricity sourcing. The demonstration systems requirements will be then used in order to provide guidance for technological bricks development. Then, ENGIE will manage and coordinate all tasks and subtasks regarding pilot demonstration system implementation, transport, installation, commissioning and testing on DK6 site. Finally, ENGIE will carry out technical, economic and environmental assessments regarding the whole processes studied and developed within C2FUEL.
ENGIE Thermique France
ENGIE THERMIQUE FRANCE owns and operates power plants at 3 locations in France (Fos, Montoir and Dunkerque). At Dunkerque, the DK6 plant has 2 units, producing up to 800 MW. Their design is unique as they combine in the same boiler a Heat Recovery process (from GT13 gas turbine) and a combustion process, allowing to valorize Steel Work Gasses (BFG and COG) from client Arcelor into electric power.
Within C2FUEL, ENGIE THERMIQUE FRANCE will be involved demonstration system specifications and installation. In this context, DK6 shall: (i) provide connection to own BFG piping; (ii) provide information and data on BFG delivery, (iii) participate into detailed design of the installation, mainly regarding process safety concerns; (iv) host the installation and perform survey activities during operation; (v) provide consumables (electricity, demin water, …).
Elcogen is the world’s most advanced manufacturer of ceramic anode-supported solid oxide cells and stacks (SOFC/SOEC). Elcogen’s technology deliver market-leading electrical efficiency and are positioned to achieve market-enabling lifetime and cost levels for SOFC system integrators. To date, Elcogen has commercialized two product generations and sold the technology to 60+ industry-leading customers globally.
Elcogen provides the project with know-how of solid oxide electrolysis and system integration. The main SOE efforts in the project will be focused on the demonstration. The SOE system will be designed to take in tap-quality water and deliver pressurized hydrogen. The aim of the demonstrator unit is to show that SOE system can be integrated as a part of a complex chemical process and to demonstrate low specific energy consumption of the hydrogen production in field trial.
DTU is one of Europe’s foremost technical universities with more than 1600 scientific staff members and 1000 Ph.D. students. The Department of Energy Conversion and Storage (DTU Energy) was created on January 1, 2012, building on existing DTU world class expertise in fuel cells, electrolysis cells, polymer solar cells, batteries, hydrogen storage and related technologies. The new department includes the former Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Division at Risø National Laboratory, which has more than 25 years of experience in solid oxide cell research and advanced functional ceramics.
In this project, DTU will carry out electrochemical characterization of the solid oxide cells and stacks at different temperatures, gas compositions, gas qualities, and pressures; apply advanced multiscale modelling tools to predicate and validate of the cell/stack performance under different operation conditions. The efforts will be focused on assessing the performance and durability of the developed cells and stacks under conditions relevant for formic acid and DME production utilising CO2 from the steel plant off gas. Special focus will be on identifying lifetime limiting factors in order to provide suitable operation strategies for the high temperature electrolysis demonstration unit.
DENS is a young company working on enabling the energy transition. This is done by building machines that convert Hydrozine, a fuel based on formic acid, into hydrogen and energy respectively. Hydrozine is a liquid hydrogen carrier which can help solve a lot of the logistics problems of using hydrogen gas. The materials used to create Hydrozine, CO2 and H2O, are the same as the emissions of the machines DENS builds. This makes the process circular and thus sustainable.
Within the C2Fuel project DENS is creating a demonstrator for the conversion of Hydrozine into energy. Next to this, DENS has a role in the production of formic acid using CO2 and H2. This completes the circular process of using Hydrozine as a fuel. During the project DENS will work closely with the consortium partners to validate the business case for the use of Hydrozine as a fuel.
“Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés” (LRGP) is a CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) research laboratory hosted at Ecole Nationale des Industries Chimiques (ENSIC), a department of Université de Lorraine (UL). LRGP is a major national laboratory in chemical engineering with around 300 people (permanent staff, PhD, post-docs…). Research activities cover reactors, energy & thermodynamics, separation processes, Process Systems Engineering, chemical kinetics, combustion, environment, safety, biotechnology, product engineering.
LRGP/EMSP team (membrane separations & processes) is in charge of the design and test of the CO2 capture unit for C2FUEL. The capture unit system will include a membrane contactor gas absorption system and a steam solvent regeneration unit, with a solvent recycling loop. The general target is to achieve CO2 recovery, concentration and purification from blast furnace flue gas in order to fulfill the specifications of the different carbon transformation processes tested in the project. A chemical solvent process will be designed, and tailor made tests will be developed, especially for trace species and dust removal.
BTD is a company working on engine development and has high skilled employees. For more than 20 years, we develop effective solutions for high demands in the development of engines and components for well-known companies in the automotive industry (including motor racing and research projects). BTD offers the conception and production of prototype engines as well as their testing. In the course of climate change, BTD is working intensively on research and development into alternative drives for the reduction of harmful emissions, as well as in public research projects and on behalf of the automotive industry (as Tier I). A number of alternative fuels and oils have been tested on our test rigs with the aim of reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, with our main focus for some years now being on the research and development of natural gas powered engines.
The C2FUEL project would be another milestone in the exploration of alternative fuels and would greatly enhance our experience in this area. BTD can expand its customer base outside of the automotive sector, as this project is mainly used to drive industrial motors to generate clean power. The tasks of BTD for the project consists to furnish information’s on the engine lay out needed for the use of DME and to provide to provide information’s on emission and combustion effect regarding the quality of the produced DME.
Ayming is an International Business Consulting company specialized in providing support to decision making and tools in order to increase the economic performances of its customers covering the following areas: Human Resources, Innovation & Finance (Public Funding & Policies for R&D&I, Tax incentives), Purchasing and Outsourcing. Ayming operates in 16 EU countries including: France, UK, Spain, Germany, Benelux, Italy, Portugal, Hungary, Poland & Czech Rep; North America (USA & Canada) and Asia with 1 300 employees worldwide and generates revenues of 170 M€. The business line “Innovation performance” owns a core expertise in innovation management with 30 experienced consultants trained in a wide field of science & technology.
AYMING main tasks in C2FUEL is to support the coordinator ENGIE for administrative and financial coordination as well as lead the WP dedicated to the communication, dissemination and exploitation of the project results through the management of the stakeholder groups.